Unzip

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Linux命令:unzip

功能说明:解压缩zip文件
语  法:unzip [-cflptuvz][-agCjLMnoqsVX][-P <密码>][.zip文件][文件][-d <目录>][-x <文件>] 或 unzip [-Z]
补充说明:unzip为.zip压缩文件的解压缩程序。
参  数:
 -c   将解压缩的结果显示到屏幕上,并对字符做适当的转换。
 -f   更新现有的文件。
 -l   显示压缩文件内所包含的文件。
 -p   与-c参数类似,会将解压缩的结果显示到屏幕上,但不会执行任何的转换。
 -t   检查压缩文件是否正确。
 -u   与-f参数类似,但是除了更新现有的文件外,也会将压缩文件中的其他文件解压缩到目录中。
 -v   执行是时显示详细的信息。
 -z   仅显示压缩文件的备注文字。
 -a   对文本文件进行必要的字符转换。
 -b   不要对文本文件进行字符转换。 
 -C   压缩文件中的文件名称区分大小写。
 -j   不处理压缩文件中原有的目录路径。
 -L   将压缩文件中的全部文件名改为小写。
 -M   将输出结果送到more程序处理。
 -n   解压缩时不要覆盖原有的文件。
 -o   不必先询问用户,unzip执行后覆盖原有文件。
 -P<密码>   使用zip的密码选项。
 -q   执行时不显示任何信息。
 -s   将文件名中的空白字符转换为底线字符。
 -V   保留VMS的文件版本信息。
 -X   解压缩时同时回存文件原来的UID/GID。
 [.zip文件]   指定.zip压缩文件。
 [文件]   指定要处理.zip压缩文件中的哪些文件。
 -d<目录>   指定文件解压缩后所要存储的目录。
 -x<文件>   指定不要处理.zip压缩文件中的哪些文件。
 -Z   unzip -Z等于执行zipinfo指令。 


英文版本,欢迎翻译:

NAME unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive

SYNOPSIS unzip [-Z] [-cflptuvz[abjnoqsCLMVX$/:]] file[.zip] [file(s) ...] [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]

DESCRIPTION unzip will list, test, or extract files from a ZIP archive, commonly found on MS-DOS systems. The default behavior (with no options) is to extract into the current directory (and subdirectories below it) all files from the specified ZIP archive. A companion program, zip(1L), creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible with archives created by PKWAREs PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in many cases the program options or default behaviors differ.

ARGUMENTS file[.zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). If the file specification is a wildcard, each matching file is pro? cessed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). Only the filename can be a wildcard; the path itself cannot. Wildcard expressions are similar to those supported in com? monly used Unix shells (sh, ksh, csh) and may contain:

  • matches a sequence of 0 or more characters

? matches exactly 1 character

[...] matches any single character found inside the brackets; ranges are specified by a begin? ning character, a hyphen, and an ending character. If an exclamation point or a caret (`! or `^) follows the left bracket, then the range of characters within the brackets is complemented (that is, anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match).

(Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system, particularly under Unix and VMS.) If no matches are found, the specification is assumed to be a literal filename; and if that also fails, the suffix .zip is appended. Note that self- extracting ZIP files are supported, as with any other ZIP archive; just specify the .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

[file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed, separated by spaces. (VMS versions compiled with VMSCLI defined must delimit files with commas instead. See -v in OPTIONS below.) Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members; see above. Again, be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.

[-x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. Since wildcard characters match directory separators (`/), this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdi? rectories. For example, ``unzip foo *.[ch] -x */*' would extract all C source files in the main directory, but none in any subdirectories. Without the -x option, all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted.

[-d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. By default, all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory; the -d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). This option need not appear at the end of the command line; it is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the nor? mal options), immediately after the zipfile specification, or between the file(s) and the -x option. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them, but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. In particular, ``-d ~' (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the users home directory, but ``-d~'' is treated as a literal subdirectory ``~' of the current directory.

OPTIONS Note that, in order to support obsolescent hardware, unzips usage screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive list of all possible flags. The exhaustive list follows:

-Z zipinfo(1L) mode. If the first option on the command line is -Z, the remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options. See the appropriate manual page for a description of these options.

-A [OS/2, Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLLs programming interface (API).

-c extract files to stdout/screen (``CRT'). This option is similar to the -p option except that the name of each file is printed as it is extracted, the -a option is allowed, and ASCII-EBCDIC conversion is automatically performed if appropriate. This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen.

-f freshen existing files, i.e., extract only those files that already exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies. By default unzip queries before overwriting, but the -o option may be used to suppress the queries. Note that under many operating systems, the TZ (timezone) envi? ronment variable must be set correctly in order for -f and -u to work properly (under Unix the variable is usually set automatically). The reasons for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-format times (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the two. A typical TZ value is ``PST8PDT' (US Pacific time with automatic adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ``summer time').

-l list archive files (short format). The names, uncompressed file sizes and modification dates and times of the specified files are printed, along with totals for all files specified. If UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined, the -l option also lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs) and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs). In addition, the zipfile comment and individual file comments (if any) are displayed. If a file was archived from a single-case file system (for example, the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the -L option was given, the file? name is converted to lowercase and is prefixed with a caret (^).

-p extract files to pipe (stdout). Nothing but the file data is sent to stdout, and the files are always extracted in binary format, just as they are stored (no conversions).

-t test archive files. This option extracts each specified file in memory and compares the CRC (cyclic redundancy check, an enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original files stored CRC value.

-T [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the newest file in each one. This corresponds to zips -go option except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e.g., ``unzip -T

  • .zip') and is much faster.

-u update existing files and create new ones if needed. This option performs the same function as the -f option, extracting (with query) files that are newer than those with the same name on disk, and in addition it extracts those files that do not already exist on disk. See -f above for information on setting the timezone properly.

-v be verbose or print diagnostic version info. This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option and a modifier. As an option it has two purposes: when a zipfile is specified with no other options, -v lists archive files verbosely, adding to the basic -l info the compression method, compressed size, compression ratio and 32-bit CRC. When no zipfile is specified (that is, the complete command is simply ``unzip -v'), a diagnostic screen is printed. In addition to the normal header with release date and version, unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where to find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites; the target operating system for which it was com? piled, as well as (possibly) the hardware on which it was compiled, the compiler and version used, and the compilation date; any special compilation options that might affect the programs operation (see also DECRYPTION below); and any options stored in environment variables that might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below). As a modifier it works in conjunction with other options (e.g., -t) to produce more verbose or debugging output; this is not yet fully implemented but will be in future releases.

-z display only the archive comment.

MODIFIERS -a convert text files. Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly as they are stored (as ``binary' files). The -a option causes files identified by zip as text files (those with the `t label in zipinfo listings, rather than `b) to be automatically extracted as such, converting line end? ings, end-of-file characters and the character set itself as necessary. (For example, Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and have no end-of-file (EOF) marker; Macintoshes use carriage returns (CRs) for EOLs; and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs and control-Z for EOF. In addition, IBM mainframes and the Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more common ASCII character set, and NT supports Unicode.) Note that zips identification of text files is by no means perfect; some ``text' files may actually be binary and vice versa. unzip therefore prints ``[text]' or ``[binary]' as a visual check for each file it extracts when using the -a option. The -aa option forces all files to be extracted as text, regardless of the supposed file type.

-b [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions). This is a shortcut for ---a.

-b [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type 180 (C) when extracting Zip entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a is enabled by default, see above).

-b [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see -a above) to fixed-length, 512-byte record format. Doubling the option (-bb) forces all files to be extracted in this format. When extracting to standard output (-c or -p option in effect), the default conversion of text record delimiters is disabled for binary (-b) resp. all (-bb) files.

-B [Unix only, and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of each overwritten file with a tilde appended (e.g., the old copy of ``foo' is renamed to ``foo~'). This is simi? lar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations.

-C match filenames case-insensitively. unzips philosophy is ``you get what you ask for'' (this is also responsible for the -L/-U change; see the relevant options below). Because some file sys? tems are fully case-sensitive (notably those under the Unix operating system) and because both ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across platforms, unzips default behavior is to match both wildcard and literal filenames case-sensitively. That is, specifying ``makefile' on the command line will only match ``makefile' in the archive, not ``Makefile' or ``MAKEFILE' (and similarly for wildcard specifications). Since this does not correspond to the behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example, OS/2 HPFS, which preserves mixed case but is not sen? sitive to it), the -C option may be used to force all filename matches to be case-insensitive. In the example above, all three files would then match ``makefile' (or ``make*', or similar). The -C option affects files in both the normal file list and the excluded-file list (xlist).

-E [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during restore operation.

-F [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension from stored filenames.

-F [non-Acorn systems supporting long filenames with embedded commas, and only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined] translate filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field blocks into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of the extracted files. (When the stored filename appears to already have an appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced by the info from the extra field.)

-i [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields. Instead, the most compatible filename stored in the generic part of the entrys header is used.

-j junk paths. The archives directory structure is not recreated; all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default, the current one).

-J [BeOS only] junk file attributes. The files BeOS file attributes are not restored, just the files data.

-J [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields. All Macintosh specific info is skipped. Data-fork and resource-fork are restored as separate files.

-L convert to lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-only operating system or file sys? tem. (This was unzips default behavior in releases prior to 5.11; the new default behavior is identical to the old behavior with the -U option, which is now obsolete and will be removed in a future release.) Depending on the archiver, files archived under single-case file systems (VMS, old MS-DOS FAT, etc.) may be stored as all-uppercase names; this can be ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a case-preserving file system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensitive one such as under Unix. By default unzip lists and extracts such filenames exactly as theyre stored (excepting truncation, conversion of unsupported characters, etc.); this option causes the names of all files from certain systems to be converted to lowercase. The -LL option forces conversion of every filename to lowercase, regardless of the originating file system.

-M pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix more(1) command. At the end of a screenful of output, unzip pauses with a ``--More--' prompt; the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar. unzip can be terminated by pressing the ``q' key and, on some systems, the Enter/Return key. Unlike Unix more(1), there is no forward-search? ing or editing capability. Also, unzip doesnt notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen, effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected, in which case unzip assumes the height is 24 lines.

-n never overwrite existing files. If a file already exists, skip the extraction of that file with? out prompting. By default unzip queries before extracting any file that already exists; the user may choose to overwrite only the current file, overwrite all files, skip extraction of the cur? rent file, skip extraction of all existing files, or rename the current file.

-N [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes. File comments are created with the -c option of zip(1L), or with the -N option of the Amiga port of zip(1L), which stores filenotes as com? ments.

-o overwrite existing files without prompting. This is a dangerous option, so use it with care. (It is often used with -f, however, and is the only way to overwrite directory EAs under OS/2.)

-P password use password to decrypt encrypted zipfile entries (if any). THIS IS INSECURE! Many multi-user operating systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of any other user; even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking. Storing the plaintext password as part of a command line in an automated script is even worse. Whenever pos? sible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter passwords. (And where security is truly important, use strong encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities.)

-q perform operations quietly (-qq = even quieter). Ordinarily unzip prints the names of the files its extracting or testing, the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that may be stored in the archive, and possibly a summary when finished with each archive. The -q[q] options suppress the printing of some or all of these messages.

-s [OS/2, NT, MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores. Since all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames, unzip by default extracts filenames with spaces intact (e.g., ``EA DATA. SF'). This can be awkward, however, since MS-DOS in particular does not gracefully support spaces in filenames. Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate the awkwardness in some cases.

-U (obsolete; to be removed in a future release) leave filenames uppercase if created under MS-DOS, VMS, etc. See -L above.

-V retain (VMS) file version numbers. VMS files can be stored with a version number, in the format file.ext;##. By default the ``;##' version numbers are stripped, but this option allows them to be retained. (On file systems that limit filenames to particularly short lengths, the version numbers may be truncated or stripped regardless of this option.)

-X [VMS, Unix, OS/2, NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under VMS, or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix, or access control lists (ACLs) under certain network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM LAN Server/Requester 3.0 to 5.0; Warp Connect with IBM Peer 1.0), or security ACLs under Windows NT. In most cases this will require special system privileges, and doubling the option (-XX) under NT instructs unzip to use privileges for extraction; but under Unix, for example, a user who belongs to several groups can restore files owned by any of those groups, as long as the user IDs match his or her own. Note that ordinary file attributes are always restored--this option applies only to optional, extra ownership info available on some operating systems. [NTs access control lists do not appear to be especially compatible with OS/2s, so no attempt is made at cross-platform portability of access privileges. It is not clear under what conditions this would ever be useful anyway.]

-$ [MS-DOS, OS/2, NT] restore the volume label if the extraction medium is removable (e.g., a diskette). Doubling the option (-$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be labelled as well. By default, volume labels are ignored.

-/ extensions [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext environment variable. During extraction, filename extensions that match one of the items in this extension list are swapped in front of the base name of the extracted file.

-: [all but Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to extract archive members into locations outside of the current `` extraction root folder'. For security reasons, unzip normally removes ``parent dir' path components (``../') from the names of extracted file. This safety feature (new for version 5.50) prevents unzip from accidentally writing files to ``sensitive' areas outside the active extraction folder tree head. The -: option lets unzip switch back to its previous, more liberal behaviour, to allow exact extraction of (older) archives that used ``../' components to create multiple directory trees at the level of the current extraction folder.